(contd) Gender inequality: Gender role ideology
(continued from above) From the essentialist viewpoint and the idea of "dedicated heterosexuality", females are confined to the public domains because of their biological features that makes them specialize in raising children and managing the household. Whereas the males are EXPECTED to go out to work in the public domains and play the "instrumental role" of providing economic resources for the family. (Maybe you would like to read about gender role ideology that results in gender inequality by a famous sociologist-Talcott Parson, it's v interesting:)
I also noted that the internalization of gender roles not only occurs at the individual level, but also at the state level. The Singapore government seems to implicitly propagate this ideology through their policies. For instance: compare the EXTENDED maternity leave that a woman, while paternity leave lasts for ONLY three days. Who's job is it to take care of the child? So much for the talk about "shared parenting responsibility".
While taking the MRT to school every morning, I can't help but notice business women clad in power-suits/pant-suits (those that resemble man's business garment) and adopting characteristics and behaviour associated to masculinity. They would talk loudly on their handphones and using "male-talk" confidently, showing themselves as being "tough" and a worker that is to be "taken seriously".
This reminds me of a play that I watched in Singapore Repository Theater (SRT) a few years ago (while I was in JC), entitled Top Girls by Caryl Churchil which talks about the ostensible success women have in the working world and how they have to adopt "maleness" in order to be noticed. In spite of all this, they are at the end of the day, entrapped by the glass ceiling that undermines their forward progress.
Check this out: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Top_Girls
Nov 1 2012, 12:25 AM EDT by
Apparent social equality and gender role socialization
Hello audreyeura, I was just browsing through and your article caught my eye. I couldn't agree more with what you said.
No doubt that female's position in society has been elevated (as compared to 19th-20th century) vis-a-vis their male counterparts. The gender gap has undeniably been narrowed because of the availability of education and the rise feminist movements like those you have mentioned. But we know the truth is, no matter how much the gender gap has reduced, it would still exist as long as gender role socialization is unchanged and internalization of gender role ideology persists. To fully attain a gender-neutral society remains only as an ideal.
Gender role socialization starts on the first day the child is born, male babies are clad in blue while females are dressed in pink and greeted with "praises" of her looks and her beauty while the male would be descirbed as "active" and "alert". Look at the toys they play eg: females with cooking sets and barbie dolls (as if to reinforce and teach them their future roles as mother-homemaker confined in the kitchen, cooking up meals for the family) while male children are given guns, toy cars that would stress aggression, competition and spatial manipulation. What seems natural is actually internalized and socially reinforced and gender roles are "learnt" at the very beginning, deeply entrenched in our minds, thus making it difficult for us to slip out of the binary classification. Men and Females are never equal, because they are taught/socialized to think they are intrinsically different. (contd)
How about this?
Hey Audreyerua, this is a great article! What you've said about Billy/Dorothy Tipton is true, in the "Gender Tango", he/she was portrayed as an unfortunate female, limited by the society's perception of gender at the time. However, it must be noted that Jazz was not strictly a gender specific career at the time. The likes of Billie Holiday and Elly Fitzgerald were wildly popular at the time and still retain a respected reputation till today. Assuredly, Dorothy Tipton would probably not have been able to be the leader of the Billy Tipton Trio had Neither did Dorothy Tipton assume the identity of Billy Tipton for fame and a successful career. As Billy Tipton, he gave up several grand opportunities to further his career for the sake of settlling down with a family.
Since his/her biological female form was only discovered after his/her death, it can never really be explained why she decided to live life as a Billy Tipton.
Now that you've provided a great idea of patriarchy within the patrilineal society, how about considering the favored position that females had over males in matrilineal societies? In these societies, would feminist movements be deemed redundant?
Lastly, as an answer to your final question... check out this image!
Oct 28 2012, 7:39 AM EDT by
Changes in Role of Man and Woman
Conventionally, men were the only family's breadwinner and decision maker of the household. While, woman's role was to manage all the household chores and raise their children. Women are seen inferior compared to men. Men were highly valued in the so
Nov 25 2012, 8:26 PM EST by Socect